Last Updated January 25, 2009

Footnotes for FHN80

Leni Soresen's Footnotes

1. Quoted in Pat Gibbs, "References to Hominy in Early Maryland and Virginia Records", Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, November, 18, 1983; from The Voyages and Travels of Captain Nathanial Uring. Originally printed 1726; reprinted London 1928. pp. 12-13. Alfred Dewar, ed.

2. Pat Gibbs; Thomas Jefferson to Charles Wilson Peale, Monticello, 21 March 1815, quoted in Edwin M. Betts, ed., Thomas Jefferson's Farm Book. Princeton 1953, p. 251.

3. Mary Randolph. The Virginia House-Wife. Karen Hess, ed. University of South Carolina Press 1984. pp. xxii, xxvii.

4. Katharine E. Harbury. Colonial Virginia's Cooking Dynasty. University of South Carolina Press 2004, p. 95.

5. Ibid, Edgerton, p. 22-23.

6. Wright drew on field notes "Based on a manuscript of penciled notes written by Charles Gibson (Creek), of Enfanla, in 1918, sent to Dr. Joseph B. Thobum, and also on Chocta Leksikon by Allen Wright (St. Louis, 18801, and in A Dictionary of the Choctaw Language by Cyrus Byington, John S. Swanton and Henry S. Halbert, editors (Bulletin 46, Bur. Amer. Ethnologist, 1915, p. 158.

7. Edna Lewis. The Taste of Country Cooking. Alfred A. Knopf 1977, pp. 20-21.

Cheryl Foote's Footnotes

1. Francisco J. Santamaría, Diccionario de Mejicanismos, Tercera Edición (Mexico [{City]: Editorial Porrua, S.A., 1978), 886.

2. Santamaría, Diccionario, 886.

3. Ricardo Muñoz Zurita, Diccionario Enciclopédico de Gastronomía 30 (Mexico [City]: Editorial Clio, 2000), 467.

4. Muñoz Zurita, Diccionario, 467.

5. Sophie Coe, America's First Cuisines (Austin: University of Texas, 1994), 136.

6. Muñoz Zurita, Diccionario, 466-67.

7. Santamaría, Diccionario, 884.

8. Coe, America's First Cuisines, 137.

9. Muñoz Zurita, Diccionario, 467-70.

10. Jeffrey Pilcher, "Many Chefs in the National Kitchen: Cookbooks and Identity in Nineteenth-Century Mexico," in William H. Beezley and Linda A. Curcio-Nagy, Latin American Popular Culture: An Introduction (Wilmington, DE: SR Books, 2000), 126.

11. Muñoz Zurita, Diccionario, 467.

12.Cushing, Zuni Breadstuffs, 292-93.

13. Cabeza de Baca, Los Alimentos, 17; Margarita C de Baca, Spanish Foods of the Southwest, (Albuquerque: The ABC Co., 1937), 11; Tey Diana Rebolledo and María Teresa Márquez, eds. Women's Tales from the New Mexico WPA, La Diabla a Pie (Houston, TX.: Arte Público Press, 2000), 21.

14.Cleofas Jaramillo, The Genuine New Mexico Tasty Recipes, (1939; reprint ed., Santa Fe: Ancient City Press, 1981), 2, notes that this was done to make sure tamales made with the white corn would be pure white; Tipton, New Mexico Cookery, also says that when after removing the hulls of white corn, "the small black spots should be picked out of the end of the kernels before grinding into meal,"(19), leaving it unclear as to whether this would also apply to the corn used for pozole.

15. Fabiola Cabeza de Baca, Los Alimentos y Su Preparac

ion, New Mexico College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts Agricultural Extension Service (State College, N.M: 1934), 17.

16. Jaramillo, Genuine New Mexico Tasty Recipes, 5. According to popular culture in the Southwest, menudo, eaten for breakfast, is a cure for a hangover. That may be why Jaramillo recommended pozole as a breakfast dish, 17.

17. Muñoz Zurita, Diccionario, 469.

18. Cabeza de Baca, Los Alimentos, p. 18, and Cabeza de Baca, Historic Cookery Agricultural Extension Service Extension Circular No. 161 (Mesilla, NM, New Mexico College of Agricultural and Mechanic Arts, 1942), 6-7.

19. M. C de Baca, Spanish Foods, 11. All of these recipes include meat and chile.

20.Phyllis Hughes, ed. Pueblo Indian Cookbook (Santa Fe: Museum of New Mexico, 1972), 33; Marcia Keegan, Southwest Indian Cookbook (Santa Fe: Clear Light Press, 1987), 70; Rita Edaakie, Idonapshe. Let's Eat. Traditional Zuni Foods (Zuni, N.M.: A:shiwi A:wan Museum and Heritage Center, 1999), 36.

21. Nasario Garcia, ed., Comadres. Hispanic Women of the Rio Puerco Valley (Albuquerque: UNM Press, 1997), 35; Rebolledo and Márquez, Women's Tales, 21; Cabeza de Baca, The Good Life (Santa Fe: The Museum of New Mexico Press, 1949), 23.

22. Jaramillo, New Mexico Tasty Recipes, 17

23. C de Baca, Spanish Foods, 23; Cabeza de Baca, Historic Cookery, did not include menus in early versions of the cookbook, nor did she mention pozole in the 1954 edition; but in the 1958 edition she included pozole as part of a dinner menu.

24. Cabeza de Baca Gilbert, The Good Life (Santa Fe: Museum of New Mexico, 1949), 42.

25. See, for example, Garcia, Comadres, 35. Cabeza de Baca, "Nochebuena," The Santa Fe Scene (December 20, 1958), 10.

27. Cabeza de Baca, The Good Life, 43.

28. "Rico Wedding Feast," New Mexico Writer's Project, America Eats, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress. Interestingly, another article called "Noche Buena" in that same collection that describes Christmas celebrations makes no mention of pozole.

John Rees Footnotes

1. Regimental command and staff officers consisted of: field officers (colonel, lieutenant colonel, and major); staff officers (including the quartermaster, adjutant, surgeon, surgeon's mate, and chaplain); and company officers (captain, lieutenant, and ensigns; the latter two were also called subalterns).

2. General orders, Washington to the President of Congress, General orders, 21 September 1775, John C. Fitzpatrick, ed., The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources 1745 1799, vol. 3 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1931), 502-503, 509-510. Washington to the Board of War, 9 January 1779, ibid., vol. 13 (1936), 497-498. Israel Shreve to Washington (enclosure), "A List of the Men of Col. Spencer's Regiment ...," 8 January 1781, George Washington Papers, Presidential Papers Microfilm (Washington: Library of Congress, 1961), series 4, reel 79.
Lt. John Tilden of Pennsylvania wrote from near the Edisto River in South Carolina:
"January 9. [1782] - Make an addition to our hut; very bad off for want of furniture. ... Dispatch two of our valets to head quarters."
"January 10. - Spend the day in reading Spanish novels. Our valets arrive this afternoon-bring tents which relieve us very much." And operating against British forces occupying James Island in the Stono River:
"January 13. - Move up two miles from [Stono] river, lay in ye woods all day and eat potatoes. Our boys [waiters] not coming down with our bedclothes, we pass the night horridly ..."
"January 14. - Our boys bring down something to eat ..."
"Extracts From the Journal of Lieutenant John Bell Tilden, Second Pennsylvania Line, 1781-1782.", Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography. vol. 19 (1895), 218-219.

3. 27 July 1777 entry, John Chilton's Diary [captain, 3rd Virginia Regiment], Keith Family Papers, 1710-1916, Virginia Historical Society. Walter Harold Wilkin, Some British Soldiers in America (London, Hugh Rees, Ltd., 1914), 227-229. William Dansey to his mother, 16 October 1777, Letters of William Dansey (Light Infantry Company, 33rd Regiment of Foot) 1776-1783, Historical Society of Delaware.
See also Loammi Baldwin, colonel, 26th Continental Regiment, to Mary Baldwin, 19 and 21 December 1776, Collections of Houghton Library, Harvard University (World Wide Web),
Col. Loammi Baldwin describing the march from White Plains, NY to near Trenton, NJ.:
"December 19th 1776
Camp at Buckingims 5 miles west of the River Delaware and 30 miles above Philadelphia
My Dear
This with my kind Love and Tender Affection for you and our little son; Duty to our honor'd Parents, love to Brothers, Sisters, Respects to all Friend.
Earnestly hoping this will find you well in health as it leaves me tho if I was at home, should think myself sick enough to keep house, but here feel my self in good spirits. Should enjoy my self well if I knew what we have been and are still about. But I am determined to exert my self to the last & have no neglect of mine to reflect upon. I trust in the skill of my Commanders and cheerfully execute the orders I have from time to time rece'd from them. The same has been done I believe by all the officers & soldiers in the Army.
However the Enemy have penetrated much further into the country than I expected they would be able to do this fall. They have made good destruction in their rout through New Jersey and they now lay at Burlington and Trent town on the East side of the River Delaware and General Washington's Army on the West over against them where I expect we shall arrive and form a junction tomorrow. Am informed this evening that upwards of 20,000 troops from the southard have passed the Schoolkill River at Tweed Ford in order to join General Washington. Head Quarters is about 30 miles above Philadelphia. The inhabitants in general have moved out of the City of Philadelphia.
You will please to excuse me for not giving you a particular account of the state of affairs in the Army for it is not in my power as I am now upon a long roundabout fatiguing march a bare sketch of which I will give you in the following manner.
1776 Nov 26 Recd orders in the morning to strike our tents & march from that encampment (which was near the White Plains) to North Castle Church (the whole of the Brigade to which I belonged had the same orders that I did). The day proceeded very rainy & was very bad marching. I was on foot without any great coat [&] I was sufficiently soaked. Arrived at the Church above 7 o'clock in the evening. After getting my men under cover, which was very difficult, there being but very few houses or barns, and them to share among 5 regiments. I got into Quarters myself about 10 o'clock wet and cold.
27 Set out from North Castle for Crompond, very rainy forenoon. Come to Crompond just at night. The men chiefly got Quarters in Houses that night.
28 Pitchd our tents & lay at Crompond. General Lee come up.
29 Continued at Crompond.
30 Remaind at Crompond very Rainy.
1776 Dec. 1 Sunday, Marchd from Crompond to Peekskill on the North River about 60 miles above York City.
2 Lay at Peekskill. About this time Col. Sergant's Brigade and General McDougalls and General Nixon's come up and joined Col. Glover's.
3d Marchd from Peekskill for Kings Ferry. Very rainy all day. Crossed the river just before night. Pitched our tents in N. Jersey by the side of the mountains. Took my lodging in a common tent upon the wet ground very late, there being no house to go to. In the night the rain increased and the flood come down the mountains and ran in torrents among and through our tents and allmost washd them away. I had no bed nor blanket except a thin piece of druggit in form of a small blanket. All the marching Army under General Lee reced orders at Peekskill not to take anything with them but one shirt and one pr. hose more than what they commonly wore.
4th Struck our tents in the morning and marchd to Haverstraw. Raind by showers all day. Exceeding bad travelling. Ordered to pitch our tents about one o'clock which we did. Soon after came. orders to strike and march 2 miles further which we did and pitchd under the grand mountains at the Landing at Haverstraw Bay. Lay in my tent.
5th Marchd from Haverstraw to Cakaac
6th From Cakaac to part of Pumptown
7th From part of Pumptown to another part of Pumptown.
8th From Pumpton to Troy
9th From Troy to Chatham
10th From Chatham to Morristown. Place pritty thick settled , court house, jail there.
11 Continued at Morristown began to snow this evening, the first flakes I have seen this siason.
12 From Morristown to Bedminster.
13 From Bedminster to Germintown; this day around 10 o'clock A.M. General Lee was taking by a party of the Enemy's Light Horse about 5 or 6 miles in the Rear of our Army, a French officer was taken with him, but nobody else. I think he is chargable with the highest degree of imprudence for suffering himself to be at such a distance from his Army when he knew he was amongst some the most iveterate Tories and the Publick Enemy nigh at hand. Our Army marchd for several days about this time, ready to form a line of battle at the shortest notice. About 6,000 of the Enemy Grenadiers and Light Infantry were making up in order to intercept our March but we took a different road from what they expected which frustrated their design. The Comand now falls upon General Sulivan, the only General we have with us tho the Army consists of 4 Brigades amounting to something better than 3,000 Men, 120 Baggage Waggons and Carages. 14th marchd from Germintown to Labenon. Extreme Cold weather. I lay in my tent but slept none, being in the most excrutiating paine with the Piles.
15 This morning struck our tents at 4 o'clock and marchd from Lebanon, very early. We drew a little salt pork, being the first we have drawn since we began this March. Took a juice of boild pork (without any bread for dinner - ate no breakfast). After stopping about 15 or 20 minutes we set out on our march again & proceeded on till we come to Phillipsburg about where we arrived about one o'clock at night & remaind there till break of day. Then it come to my turn to cross the River Delaware over the ferry from Phillipsburg in N. Jersey to Easton in Pennsylvania.
Dec. 16 After crossing the River this morning & ordering the Reg't where to pitch the tents, I went to a house and got a hot breakfast being the first mouthful of victuals or drop of drink I have taken in any house since the 2nd inst. Neither have I lodged in any house since that time nor ate a mouthful of any kind of sauce or any kind of spoon victuals whatever since the 2nd Inst. Thus I have lived 14 days upon nothing but fresh beef without salt and dry flower (which we have cooked in the best manner we could without even so much as a camp kittle half the time). Except 1 day allowance of salt pork, a fowle or two and a few sasages my waiter bought of some of the inhabitants and brought in camp & a little salt they beged. I know by this time what sickness and hardship in conjunction are though I have in general a pritty good apetite to my food as coric as it is.
17 Marchd from East town in the morning. arrivd at Bethlehem about sunset. General Gates with about 200 troops arrivd in Bethlehem from Ticonderoga about 2 hours before General Sulivan's Army. My Reg't crossed the River Lehi, the troop in boats and the baggage crossed the ford. I procured Liberty of General Sulivan to tarry in Bethlehem that night in order to see the curiosities of the Meravians in the morning.
18 This morning was conducted by one of the overseers of the Public House , first through the young women's house, a large elegant stone building 5 stories high, was led into all the Apartments where was young women very industriously at work at all sorts of women's imploy - spinning, weaving, kniting, quilting, imbroidering, lined drawing, limning, painting in water colour, writing, etc...
I was then conducted into one of the young women's sleeping Halls, where was sixty bed in one hall, all single beds as they are not sufferd to sleep two in a bed. The Hall is so contrived that they receive no disadvantage from their breath or perspiration: they have lamps burning and a watch standing or walking all night in their hall where they sleep.
I then was carried into their dining hall which was hung with paintings, writings, etc, and from thence into the kitchen which was so ingeniously contrived that three women with the greatest ease cook for one hundred and twenty young women who all dined together. Their kitchen is something like a confectioner's shop. every thing throughout their whole house is extremely neat and clean. The women's dress is plain and modest tho exceeding neat and clean, their head dresses are all uniform, diferent from any that ever I saw before.
I then went to the young men's House, another bigger stone building, six stories high, 50 windows on one side. The young men in this serve many occupations and follow much the same method of life that women do. They have 90 beds in one of their sleeping halls. There is also the Widows' House where a Woman, as soon as she becomes a widow, enters and receives a fifteen pound annuity every year during her widowhood.
There is also the children's or Youth's House where the children are educated , vitualled, sleep and their church and church musick is grand.
Their water work are simple yet well contrived whereby all the town consisting of about 100 fine stone houses is watered, even in their chambers. They have water only by turning a close cock. In short then Oeconomy, industry, benevolence and monnies in general are truly astonishing but to give a particular account of this place would require more time than I have at present and more ink too. I have but poor conveniency for writing.
18 Movd from Bethlehem to part of Buck County. Continuously cold.
19 Marchd from part of Bucks County to Buckingham. Marchd this day without stopping on March from morning to night. I have not been able to ride a step for 5 days past; procured a house to lodge in this night.
20 This morning snowed very fast. Recd orders to march. The orders were soon after countermanded. It continued snowing the forepart and raind the later part of the day. The troops remain here with orders to march at 6 o'clock tomorrow morning. Expect there will be a push made against the Enemy before close of the campaign. I must beg you to excuse this scroll for I assure you I should as leave undertake to write in the Broad Alley of our Meeting House upon a town meeting when the affairs of the school are adjutated as to write here. The opirtunity by Mr. Crofts I am very fond of embracing, [for] I have had no opertunity to write to you since I wrote by Capt. Rice.
When I get to the end of this march which will probably be tomorrow, I shall be about 400 miles from you the way I suppose I must return; which distance I propose to begin to shorten so soon as I can settle my affairs if I live through this campaign. Perhaps I shall be at home some time the latter part of January next, and sooner if Possible.
I am my Dear with much Esteem your Affectinate Husband
Loammi Baldwin.
Pray keep this scroll to yourselfe and I beg you would want for nothing while you have money in your possession. William Brewster is well. I have taken him for one of my aides. I saw one of Mr. Ebenezer Richardson's sons since I have been upon this march and he was well."

4. Joseph Lee Boyle, "From Saratoga to Valley Forge: The Diary of Lt. Samuel Armstrong," The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, CXXI, 3 (July 1997), 258.

5. John Chilton to his brother, 29 June 1777, Chilton to his sister, (postscript), 14 August 1777, Keith Family Papers, Virginia Historical Society. Israel Shreve to Mary Shreve, 26 October 1780, Shreve Papers, Buxton. George Washington to the Secretary at War, 2 October 1782, Fitzpatrick, Writings of George Washington, vol. 25 (1938), 226-227.

6. Israel Shreve to Thomas Curtis, 26 August 1776, The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, vol. 28 (1904), pp. 114-116. "Lieut. Colonel Josiah Harmar's Journal. No: 1. Commencing November 11th: 1778," 11 November 1778 to 2 September 1780, pp. 29, 35, 106, 110, Josiah Harmar Papers (microfilm edition, vol. 27, reel 10), William C. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Journal of Dr. Ebenezer Elmer, 29 June 1779, Journals of the Military Expedition of Major General John Sullivan Against the Six Nations of Indians in 1779 (Glendale, N.Y.: Benchmark Publishing Company, Inc., 1970), 81.

7. "We the Subscribers beg leave to represent to your Excellency that all Regimental Officers conceive themselves greatly oppres'd by a Resolve of Congress which obliges them to draw their Provisions with the men; This Resolve deprives them of the few conveniences which might be had, without any disadvantage to the Publick from the Commissaries Store - besides it oppresses the men, the Officers picking out all the best bits for their own consumption.
We cannot conceive the little inconvenience the Commissary will be subject to, in opening Mess accounts, is a sufficient reason for depriving the Officers the advantage and comforts that may be had from the Commissaries Store when at liberty to draw as their necessaties require.
We beg your Excellency to recommend a repeal of that resolve of Congress, and direct the Regiments to form themselves into Messes, no one Regiment to consist of more than twelve & as many less as the Regiment can render convenient, and that each Mess be at liberty to draw at all times such Articles from the Commissaries Store as are provided for the use of the Army, and that every thing so drawn be charg'd to the head of the Mess; The Mess accounts to be settled once a month, and the balance to be paid either from the Commissary to the Mess or from the Mess to the Commissary, as appears due upon ballancing the Ration account." Nathanael Greene to Washington, 7 August 1777, George Washington Papers, series 4, reel 43.
In Congress, 4 September 1777, the Board of War recommended, "That General Washington be empowered, if he thinks proper to order the Officers of the several Regiments to receive their Rations in Messes, notwithstanding any Resolutions of Congress to the Contrary."
On 11 September 1777 the Continental Congress resolved "That the officers of each regiment, corps and detachment, be empowered to divide themselves, as often as they shall think proper, into messes, not exceeding six to a regiment, and to signify the same to the officer signing the provision returns, who shall thereupon distinguish in each return the names of the officers so divided into messes; and the issuing commissaries are respectively directed to deliver to the head of each mess ... the rations due to the same, or such part thereof as the head of the mess shall require, taking receipts therefor ..."
Worthington Chauncey Ford, Journals of the Continental Congress 1774-1789, vol. VIII (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1907), 446, 732-733. John Chilton Diary, 26 July 1777, Keith Family Papers, Virginia Historical Society. Richard M. Lederer, Jr., Colonial American English: A Glossary, (Essex, Ct.: Verbatim, 1985), 179.

8. William Feltman and Joseph McClellan, "Diary of the Pennsylvania Line. May 26, 1781 - April 25, 1782," John Blair Linn and William H. Egle, Pennsylvania in the War of the Revolution, Battalions and Line 1775-1783, vol. II (Harrisburg, Pa.: Lane S. Hart, State Printer, 1880), 702; The foregoing "Diary" includes the journals of both Captain Joseph McClellan (26 May 1781-13 June 1781) and Lieutenant William Feltman (26 May 1781-25 April 1782).

9. Statement attributed to General William Tecumseh Sherman: "Most authors have first attributed Sherman's statement, "War is Hell" to his presentation at the Ohio State Fair in 1880. The following account was published in the History of Oakland County regarding Sherman's address to the cadets of the M.M.A.
Eyewitness, Dr. Charles O. Brown said that, 'the reason the reporters missed the famous statement, and later denied that it had been made, was that the reporters rushed away as soon as Sherman started reading his long, technical speech. But before he sat down, the General suddenly said, 'Cadets of the graduating class' - the students arose and saluted - and then changed it to 'Boys,' making this statement: 'I've been where you are now and I know just how you feel. It's entirely natural that there should beat in the breast of every one of you a hope and desire that some day you can use the skill you have acquired here.
'Suppress it! You don't know the horrible aspects of war. I've been through two wars and I know. I've seen cities and homes in ashes. I've seen thousands of men lying on the ground, their dead faces looking up at the skies. I tell you, war is hell!' The reporters had missed the biggest story of the day. Brown, seated alongside Sherman, wrote down the speech verbatim." The Enquirer and News (Battle Creek) 18 November, 1933. (World Wide Web),

10. Officers and alchohol. Journals, Lt. Samuel Shute, 2nd New Jersey Regt., 23 July 1779, and Lt. Erkuries Beatty, 4th Pennsylvania Regt., 25 September 1779, Journals of the Military Expedition of Major General John Sullivan, 34, 268-269. Journals of Lt. Erkuries Beatty, 4th Pennsylvania Regt., 25 September 1779, ibid., 34. The full series of toasts was thus:

"… the following toasts were given by Genl. Hand [beginning with] - The 13 Sisters and their sponsors - the honorable the American Congress - Genl. Washington & the American Army - The comander in chief of the Western expedition - The Allies of America & the United House of Bourbon - The memory of Lt. Boyd and the Brave soldiers under his command who was unhumanly massacred on the 13th Instant - May the American Congress and the Legislatives of America be endowed with wisdom and be as firm as the Pillars of time - May the Citizens & soldiers of America be Unanimous in support of American Liberty - May Discord & Fraud be banished from the shores of America - May the Kingdom of Ireland merit a Stripe on our Standard - An honorable peace or persistant war to the Enemies of America - May the Enemies of America be Metamorphised in Pack horses and sent on a Western Expedition …"

For more on soldiers and alcohol see, John U. Rees, "'The oficers are Drunk and Dancing on the table …': U.S Soldiers and Alcoholic Beverages," Food History News, vol. XIV, no. 2 (54). See also:

British Forces. (Courtesy of Jay Callaham) Alcohol carried by British Lt. Frederick Mackenzie, 23rd Regiment Welsh Fusiliers, for himself and four other officers and their families on their voyage to North America in 1773:

12 Gallons of Rum 4:4:0
12 of Brandy 3:9:0
20 Dozen of Bottled Porter 7:4:6
9 Doz of Port Wine @ 17/6
4 " of Mountain
2 " of Lisbon
2 Gallons of Shrub (all of the above @ 17/6)

"All the liquors were drank; (I believe I did not drink 6 bottles of Port the whole time)."

They departed from England in mid-April, 1773 and arrived June 10 in New York. On arrival Mackenzie discovered that, "Rum is so cheap (the New England rum being only 1s/9d a Gallon) that at present we find the utmost difficulty in keeping them (the men) from drinking to excess; which I fear will be fatal to many of them; for the spirit is very bad. The best Jamaica Rum is sold for 3/6 a Gallon; and french brandy for 5s/6d ---- The price of Wines I don't know; But at the Tavern we paid 2s/11d a bottle for Madeira and 3s/6d for Claret. Hardly any Port to be met with ---- I buy 16 Gallons of very good small beer for 2s/11d & Spruce beer, which I am determined to drink, and like, for ½ a bottle. --- Porter is 7d a bottle." Frederick Mackenzie, A British Fusilier in Revolutionary Boston, Allen French, ed. (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1926)

American Officers and Alcohol (Miscellaneous).

Sutlers and Liquor at the Valley Forge Camp, 1778:

Head Quarters, V. Forge, Thursday, April 16, 1778.

Parole Friburgh. Countersigns Fitzwilliam, Fitzgerald.

The Commander in Chief directs that only one Sutler be allowed to each Brigade, who shall have one Sutling Booth within the limits of the Brigade (and shall sell liquor at no other) where he shall sell his liquor at the following prices to the officers and men of the Brigade to which he belongs and on no Pretence to any other under penalty of having his whole stock seized and being rendered incapable of ever serving as sutler in the Army again. Whiskey, Peach Brandy, Apple-Brandy, Cordials of all kinds and any other home-made spirits at 15/pr. gallon, pr. quart 4/, pr. pint 2/, pr. half pint 1/3. West-India spirit pr. quart full proof 15/, a bowl of toddy containing half a pint of spirit 7/6; no persons whatever besides such licensed sutlers or Commissaries sent by particular States shall sell liquors of any kind in Camp or within seven miles of Camp under penalty of having their whole stock seized without payment for the use of the Army, except that the Quarter Master General is authorized to allow one or more houses of Entertainment to accommodate Travelers and Strangers who must necessarily be in the Vicinity of the Camp. The persons receiving their license for that purpose, giving sufficient security not to vend their liquors to any person belonging to the Army. The Brigadiers and Officers commanding Brigades are to report to the Adjutant General the names of the sutlers of their respective Brigades and when any change happens they are to report it accordingly.

General orders, 16 April 1778, Fitzpatrick, Writings of George Washington, vol. 11 (1934), 264-265.

General Washington thanks Robert Morris for a shipment of wine:

Morris-Town, February 4, 1780.

Dear Sir: I have received, and I thank you, for your favor of the 1st. Instr. Almost at the same instant of its arrival a letter from Messrs. Hewes Smith and Allan was put into my hands giving an acct. of the safe arrival of the Wine [originating in Teneriffe] (mentioned by you) at Edenton; and of their having confided it to the care of Mr. Turnbull (at his own earnest request) to be conveyed to me.

Should it arrive in good order I shall be able to give my friends a glass of such as I cd. wish and if you will do me the favor to partake of it at Morris town, I shall be happy. It is upon these occasions only I wish for, and feel the want of it; having, so far as my own gratifications are interested, resolved to be equally contented with grog should it even be made of N. E. Rum, and drank out of a wooden Bowl, as the case has been.

Mrs. Washington very cordially joins me in a testification of gratitude for the kind assurances given by Mrs. Morris and yourself of making Philadelphia agreeable to us, if we should incline to visit it in the course of this long and severe winter. If other matters were in as favourable a train for relaxation of this kind as my own inclination, I should need no importunity; but public duty, and Social enjoyments, are so much at varience that I have little expectation of endulging in the latter while I am under ties of the former. Perhaps when the one ceases, 1 may be incapable of the other.

My respectful complimts., in which Mrs. Washington joins, is offered to your Lady and with sincere esteem etc. Washington to Robert Morris, 4 February 1780, Fitzpatrick, Writings of George Washington, vol. 18 (1937), 486-487.

Maj. Joseph Bloomfield, 3rd New Jersey Regiment, describes a celebration cut short by a British advance: [18 June 1778] whilst the officers of the [Jersey] Brigade & Gentn. of the Town were feasting on Turtle & Punch &c. &c. … Information was brought that the Enemy were advancing.

Mark E. Lender and James Kirby Martin, eds., Citizen Soldier; The Revolutionary Journal of Joseph Bloomfield (Newark: New Jersey Historical Society, 1982), 135.

Lt. Col. Josiah Harmar dines at a private home: "June 22nd [1780] Pleasant Day - March'd at Day break, and halted near Rockaway Bridge - Dind with Mr. Bernhout, the Bottle briskly circulated."
"Lieut. Colonel Josiah Harmar's Journal. No: 1. Commencing November 11th: 1778.", 11 November 1778 to 2 September 1780, p. 107, Josiah Harmar Papers, William C. Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

Massachusetts Private Nahum Parker's officers' celebration: Saterday 2 [September 1780] Cloudy Rany wether / the sargeants Drawd swords / [Luke?] set of[f] for home / the oficers are Drunk and Dancing on the table / an unsutibell Life in deed for poor I for I had Rather be at Home / No Salt nor Flour / we have orders to be Redy to March to Morough Morning / September storm / A remarkable site of Black Birds
Nahum Parker pension file ( ), journal for six months service in the 15th Massachusetts Regiment, July-December 1780, Revolutionary War Pension and Bounty - Land - Warrant Application Files, National Archives Microfilm Publication M804, reel 1874.

Celebrations and Toasts.

Here is a sampling of toasts given at meals and celebrations: "3d. [July 1779] - In the afternoon most of the Subalterns met at ye Colo[nel's]. Marque[e] [tent] to take a drink. After several toasts had gone round being: Saturday night they agreed to drink [to] Sweethearts & wives on Honor. The following Ladies were toasted

Miss H. Burnet by Lieu Jno. Peck
" S. Burnet by Lt. Danl Lane
" Abby Wheeler by Mr. Wm Shute
" Minney Baldwin by Lt. Osman
" P. Weaver by Lt. Weyman
" Phebe Atwood by Lt. S. Shute
" N. Shreeve by Lt. Shreve
" P. Johnson by Lt. Appleton
" N. McWhorter by Dr. M. Elmer
Mrs. Jelph by Dr. E. Elmer
" Foster by Lt. Halsey"

"17th. [July 1779] - Dined with Genl. Sullivan, a very considerable number of Gen[tleme]n. were present & we were entertained with a great plenty of good punch."

Journal of Dr. Ebenezer Elmer, 2nd New Jersey Regiment, 29 June 1779, Journals of the Military Expedition of Major General John Sullivan Against the Six Nations of Indians in 1779 (Glendale, N.Y., 1970), 82, 83.

[5 July 1779] This day General Poor makes an elegant entertainment for all the officers of his brigade, with a number of gentlemen from other brigades, and from the town. Gen. Hand and his retinue were present. The dining room was a large booth, about eighty feet in length, with a marquee pitched at each end. The day was spent in mirth and jollity. The company consisted of upwards of one hundred who graced the feast with a number of good songs. After the dinner the following toasts were drank, to wit:

1st. The United States.
2nd. The Fourth of July, '76: The memorable era of American Independence.
3rd. The Grand Council of America.
4th. Gen. Washington and the army.
5th. The King and Queen of France.
6th. Genl. Sullivan and the Western Expedition.
7th. May the Counsellors of America be wise, and her Soldiers invincible.
8th. A successful and decisive campaign.
9th. Civilization, or death to all Savages.
10th. To the immortal memory of those heroes who have fallen in defence of American Liberty.
11th. May the husbandman's cottage be blessed with peace, and his fields with plenty.
12th. Vigor and Virtue to the sons and daughters of America.
13th. May the new world be the last asylum of freedom and the arts.

A year later, in northern New Jersey, a similar affair was described by a surgeon in Jackson's Additional Regiment: 10th. [July 1780] - The officers of our regiment and those of Colonel Webb's united in providing an entertainment, and invited a respectable number of gentlemen of our brigade to dine; Dr. West and myself were appointed caterers and superintendents. We erected a large arbor, with the boughs of trees, under which we enjoyed an elegant dinner, and spent the afternoon in social glee, with some of the wine which was taken from the enemy when they retreated from Elizabethtown. Journal of Captain Daniel Livermore, 3rd New Hampshire Regiment, 5 July 1779, Journals of the Military Expedition of Major General John Sullivan Against the Six Nations of Indians in 1779 (Glendale, N.Y., 1970), 182. James Thacher, Military Journal of the American Revolution (Hartford, Ct. 1862), 204.

While stationed in Philadelphia in May 1782, Lt. Jeremiah Greenman, Rhode Island Regiment, received a ticket to dine with the "Govener & Counsell of this State." He "went to the City Tavern where was an Elegant Dinner prepared for all the Officers of the Continental Army which was in Town ... after Dinner drank the 13 following Tosts (viz) United States, 2 King of France, 3d the Dauphin, 4th Queen of France & the Royal Family 5th King of Spain, & all Friendly Powers 6th Genl. Washington & the Army 7th Count Rochambeau & the French Army 8th Genl Green & the Southern Army 9th Count De Grasse & the allied Fleet 10th Perpetual alliance between France & America 11th May the Year 82 be annimated with the zeal of 76. & obtain the Successes of 81, 12th Dependence to all wether Princss or Private Men who wish the Dependency of America 13th A peace astablished our Independency, Liberty, Safety Honour or no Peace ..." Robert C. Bray and Paul E. Bushnell, eds., Diary of a Common Soldier in the American Revolution: An Annotated Edition of the Military Journal of Jeremiah Greenman (DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press., 1978), 249.

Check below for the footnotes to Food History News #67.

Footnotes for John Rees' Article
1. "News of the Yorktown Campaign: The Journal of Dr. Robert Honeyman, April 17-November 25, 1781," The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, vol. 79, no. 2 (October 1971), 401-402. See also, Rees, "'We ... got ourselves cleverly settled for the night': Soldiers' Shelter on Campaign During the War for Independence," part IV, "`We are now ... properly ... enwigwamed.': British Soldiers and Brush Huts, 1776-1781" (World Wide Web,
2. George Washington to Benjamin Lincoln, 2 October 1782, John C. Fitzpatrick, ed., The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources 1745 1799, 25 (Washington, DC, 1938), 226-227.
3. Mark M. Boatner III, Encyclopedia of the American Revolution (New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1966), 865. Robert Davis, "Re: General William Phillips' personal effects 1781," Date: Mon, 28 Feb 2005 08:40:01 -0500, online posting Robert P. Davis, Where a Man Can Go: Major General William Phillips, British Royal Artillery 1731-1781 (Westport, Ct.: Greenwood Press, 1999). Steven M. Baule and Stephen Gilbert, British Army Officers Who Served in the American Revolution, 1775-1783 (Westminster Md.: Heritage Books, 2004), 40. "List of Articles sent to His Excellency General Sir Henry Clinton from the Effects of Major General Phillips," 16 October 1781, Henry Clinton Papers, William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan. 4. Ibid. 5. Steve Rayner, "To Bob Davis. Re: General William Phillips' personal effects 1781," Date: Mon, 28 Feb 2005 08:52:19 -0600, online posting Robert Davis, "Re: General William Phillips' personal effects 1781," Date: Mon, 28 Feb 2005 08:40:01 -0500, online posting "List of Articles sent to His Excellency General Sir Henry Clinton from the Effects of Major General Phillips," 16 October 1781, Clinton Papers, Clements Library. 6. Todd Braisted, "Provisions for the General's Table: Goods Purchased by Sir Henry Clinton for the 1780 Siege of Charleston," The Brigade Dispatch (Journal of the Brigade of the American Revolution), XXXIV, no. 4 (Winter 2004), 9-10. 7. Henry Clinton Papers, vol. 90, item 23, William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. 8. Samphire, Botanical: Crithmum maritimum (LINN.); Family: N.O. Umbelliferae. Synonyms: Sea Fennel. Crest Marine. Sampier. "Occasionally we find the name SEA FENNEL given to a plant which is far more familiar under the name of SAMPHIRE, and which also belongs to the great order of umbelliferous plants, though not to the same genus as the fennel. In German, this plant is also given a name equivalent to sea-fennel: Meerfenchel. Prior tells us that the name of this plant is more properly zas; it was formerly spelt Sampere, or Sampier, from Saint Pierre, and Herba di San Pietra (contracted to Sanpetra) is its Italian name. It is dedicated to the fisherman saint, because it likes to grow on sea-cliffs. The Samphire is a succulent, smooth, much-branched herb, woody at the base, growing freely on rocks on the sea-shore moistened by the salt spray. ---Description---It is well distinguished by its long, fleshy, bright-green, shining leaflets (full of aromatic juice) and umbels of tiny, yellowish-green blossoms. The whole plant is aromatic and has a powerful scent. The young leaves, if gathered in May, sprinkled with salt (after freeing them from stalks and flowers), boiled and covered with vinegar and spice, make one of the best pickles, on account of their aromatic taste. On those parts of the coast where Samphire does not abound, other plants which resemble it in having fleshy leaves are sometimes sold under the same name, but are very inferior. Samphire gathering is referred to in King Lear: 'Half-way down Hangs one that gathers samphire; dreadful trade!' At the present time it grows but sparingly on the white cliffs of Dover, where Shakespeare described it, but in his days it was probably more abundant there. From his description of the perilous nature of the collection of Samphire, it might be assumed that it grows where none but the adventurous can reach it, but it is to be found growing freely in the clefts of the rocks, and is in many places easily accessible from the beach, and is even sometimes to be found in the salt marshes that in some districts fringe the coast. Samphire is abundantly met with where circumstances are favourable to its growth, around the coasts of western or southern England, but is rarer in the north and seldom met with in Scotland. The use of Samphire as a condiment and pickle, or as an ingredient in a salad is of ancient date. It used at one time to be cried in London streets as 'Crest Marine.' ---Medicinal Action and Uses---In Gerard's time it was in great reputation as a condiment. He wrote in 1597: 'The leaves kept in pickle and eaten in sallads with oile and vinegar is a pleasant sauce for meat, wholesome for the stoppings of the liver, milt and kidnies. It is the pleasantest sauce, most familiar and best agreeing with man's body.' Culpepper, writing some fifty years later, deplores that it had in his days much gone out of fashion, for it is well known almost to everybody that ill digestions and obstructions are the cause of most of the diseases which the frail nature of man is subject to; both of which might be remedied by a more frequent use of this herb. It is a safe herb, very pleasant to taste and stomach. In some seaside districts where Samphire is found, it is still eaten pickled by country people." M. Grieve, A Modern Herbal: The Medicinal, Culinary, Cosmetic and Economic Properties, Cultivation and Folk-Lore of Herbs, Grasses, Fungi, Shrubs & Trees with their Modern Scientific Uses, two volumes (New York: Dover Publications, Inc, 1971; reprint of the 1931 Harcourt, Brace & Company edition) Rock Samphire (Crithmum maritimum): Rock Samphire is quite common round the coasts of Southern Europe and South and South-West England, Wales and Southern Ireland, but it is less common in the North and rare in Scotland. It does not occur in North America … Rock Samphire is a perennial, frost hardy and easy to grow. It grows in its native environment from rocks and shingle and on cliffs. Pickled samphire was once so popular and salable that men risked their necks to collect it from the cliffs. It grew abundantly on the Isle of Wight where, according to Coles, 'there is so great plenty that it is gathered, (yet not without danger) for some have ventured so far upon the craggy precipices that they have fallen down and broken their necks, so that '-making a rather sick joke-'it might be said they paid'. Coles described how the plant was pickled and sent to London and other places, 'of all the sawces (which are very many) there is none so pleasant, none so familiar and agreeable to Man's body as samphire, both for digestion of meates; breaking of the stone, and voiding of Gravell in the Reines and Bladder'. Gerard wrote in 1597: The leaves kept in pickle and eaten in sallads with oile and vinegar is a pleasant sauce for meat, wholesome for the stoppings of the liver, milt and kidnies. Samphire leaves look like succulents and are at their best and freshest in spring, until early summer, before the plant flowers. Culpepper wrote fifty years later, that it had in his days gone out of fashion, for it is well known almost to everybody that ill digestions and obstructions are the cause of most of the diseases which the frail nature of man is subject to; both of which might be remedied by a more frequent use of this herb. Riverhouse Herb Farm (World Wide Web) 9. Other British generals lived just as sumptuously while campaigning, most notably General Sir William Howe, and Maj. Gen. John Burgoyne, whose personal baggage at one point in the 1777 Saratoga Campaign seems to have been rather substantial. The excerpt below makes note of Burgoyne's baggage train. It is possible General Burgoyne may have lessened his personal gear before moving further south. "By Major General Phillips General Orders. August 19th, 1777 Major General Phillips has heard with the utmost astonishment, that notwithstanding his most serious and positive Orders of the 16th [actually 17th] Instant, that no Carts should be used for any purpose whatever, but the Transport of Provisions, unless by particular Orders from the Commander in Chief … there are this day about thirty Carts on the Road loaden with Baggage, said to be the Lieutenant General's [i.e., John Burgoyne]. Major General Phillips being perfectly acquainted with his Excellency's [General Burgoyne's] Sentiments upon this subject, that he would on no account suffer his private conveniency to interfere with the public Transports of Provisions, to the great amount of it, if true, as it has been reported, is sure his Excellency will mark the strongest resentment at this very indecent disobedience of General Orders." Army orders stipulated the allotment of baggage wagons for Howe's forces the previous autumn: "Head Quarters New York Island Sepber 23d [1776.] Regulations for Carriages & Horses of the Army Lt General three Wagons. Major General 2 Wagons. Brigadier General one Wagon. Aid de Camp two Horses. Major of Brigade two Horses Adjutant General four Horses. Depy Adj General three Horses. Assistant two horses. Depy Quarter Master General four Horses. Assistant two horses. Bagage of each Battalion Regiment four Wagons, of each Hessian Regiment six wagons. Field Officers Commanding Regiments three Horses. Majors two Horses. Officers under the Rank of Field Officer commanding Regiments two Horses. Each Staff Officer one horse. A Company of Hessian Chasseurs one Wagon. each Wagon to have two Horses. The Commander in Chief expects the strictest Obedience to this Order, not only the immediate situation of this Country, but the future expectations of the Army make it indispensibly necessary; Commanding Officers of Corps will be responsible to the General for the due observance of it. those Officers who have purchased Horses may send them to the Deputy Quarter Master General, & on producing a receipt will receive the Money paid for them." Horatio Rogers, ed., Hadden's Journal and Orderly Books: A Journal Kept in Canada and Upon Burgoyne's Campaign in 1776 and 1777, by Lieut. James M. Hadden, Roy. Art. (Boston: Gregg Press, 1972), 314-315. "The Journal of Ensign Thomas Glyn, 1st Regiment of Foot Guards on Service with the Brigade of Guards 1776-1777." mss, pp. 14-15, Collection of Princeton University Library. Transcribed from microfilm by Linnea M. Bass, 1987. Courtesy of Steve Rayner. List of Articles sent to His Excellency General Sir Henry Clinton from the Effects of Major General Phillips.4 lbs £...S...D 6 Loaves single refined Sugar.....59 6 Loaves Do.....Do......Do...........57 6 Loaves Do.....Do......Do..........56 6 Loaves Do.....Do......Do..........58 6 Loaves Do.....Do......Do..........58 288 lbs..... 11..19...4 8 Loaves Double refined Sugar..56 8 Loaves Do.....Do......Do..........55 9 Loaves Do........Do.......Do......62 1 Loaf Do........Do.. ....Do....... 8 181 lbs .........10...0...0 6 Loaves Trebel refined ............10 2...4...0 2 Loaves Lump Sugar................59 2 Loaves Do...............................55 114 lbs 4...5...6 1 Chest Hyson Tea, wt ..............67 lbs 10...8...6 1 Chest Souchong Tea, wt........ 58 lbs 20..10...0 6 Breakfast Cups & Saucers.................. 12...0 12 Coffee Cups and 9 Saucers ................. 1...1...0 1 Japanned Jugg ................................ 7...6 3 Large Tumbler Glasses ........................ 13...6 2 (size smaller) Do ............................ 4...6 8 Small Do ............................ 13...6 10 Hock Glasses Do ......................... 1...0...0 3 Quart Decanters ............................ 15...6 *64 blue and white plates *23 Do...Do..Do....Soop Plates * 2 Do...Do..Do....Tureens & Cover * 1 Do...Do..Do....Salad oval Bowl *29 Do...Do..Do....Oblong Dishes * 4 Do...Do..Do....round Dishes * 3 Do...Do..Do....Dishes & Covers * 4 Do...Do..Do....Sauce Boats, Stand & Covers * 1 Do...Do..Do....Butter Boat & 4 Stands * 2 Fish Strainers ...................................... 14....0...0 [*Service of Queen's Ware] 57 Dozens & 6 Bottles Irish Claret ............ 86...16...0 2 Sides Bacon ................................ 4....4... 8 6 Hams........................................ 2...18...0 40 Dozens Lemons, in a Box 1...16...0 3 Dozens New Green handled knives 3 Dozens Do..........Forks 2 Carving Knives/New Green Handles 6....6...0 2 Do..... Forks.....Do.....Do 6 Oyster Knives.............. 4 Silver Sauce Boats and Ladles 35..16...6 4 Plated Candlesticks 1....1...0 2 Ditto....(Flat) 10...6 6 horns lined With Silver 3...7...6 £378...19...9 State, valued by Messrs Roberts & Fueter June 22d 1781... 24 four pronged Silver Forks ............ 41....5...0 36 Silver Table Spoons .................. 61....6...3 18 Desert Spoons ......................... 16...15...3 1 Silver Soop Ladle ...................... 4...12...4 ¾ 2 Silver Cups ............................ 4....4...0 1 Large Silver Washhand Bason ........... 12...16...2 ¼ 4 Silver Plates ......................... 28...10...0 4 Silver Spoons .......................... 6....2...3 4 four pronged Silver Forks .............. 6....6...0 12 Tea Spoons, 2 Saltspoons ............... 4..11...2 ¼ and 1 pair Sugar Tonges 2 Silver Tea Cannisters ................. 18...18...0 1 Silver Tea Pot ......................... 7...10...0 4 Knives Silver handled .................. 2.....0...0 a Coach........................................ 90....0...0 New York, 30th March 1780 His Excellency Genl. Sir Henry Clinton Bo[ugh]t of Samuel Kerr7 £ sh D No. 1 A Box containing 3 Square Quart Bottles Wallnuts 3 ditto French Beans 2 ditto India Mangoes 2 ditto Girkens 2 ditto Peppers 12 Bottles at 16/ 9. 12. 0. 2 A Box 4 Bottles French Beans 2 ditto Samphire 8 2 ditto Girkens 2 ditto Wallnuts 2 ditto Cabbage 12 Bottles at 16/ 9. 12. 0. 3 A Box containing 16 Quart Bottles French Olives at 16/ 12.16. 0. 8 Pint ditto ditto 8/ 3. 4. 0. 16. 0. 0. 4 A Box lined with Lead, containing 24 lb Hyson Tea at 24/ 28. 16. 0. 5 A Cask containing 41 Loaves } Double refined Sugar, 286 lb at 3/3d } 46. 9. 6. 6 A Cask containing 36 d[itt]o 322 lb 2/6 40. 6. 3. 7 & 8 Two Boxes containing each Six } Yorkshire Hams, 295 lb } at 2/4 34. 8. 4. 24 dryed Tongues, 12 in each Box } with the Hams } at 6/8 8. 0. 0. 12 Casks Porter [containing "51 Doz. & 11 Bottles," vizt. 623 bottles] … at 62. 6. 0. New York March 30th 1780 … Bot. of Hall & Birks 112 lb of Cod Fish at 32/ £ 1. 12. 0. New York 30th March 1780 … Bot. at Waddington's Brewery 6 Barrels Old Ale at 93/4 £ 28. 0. 0. 6 Casks 14/ 4. 4. 0. … New York 28th March 1780 … Bot. of John Stoughton 8 best Double G[l]oucester Cheeses} 146 lb at 2/6 } £ 18. 5. 0.

Food History News 66
Culinary History Groups
Food Products for Food History

Hearth Cooking Classes
Heirloom Seeds and Plants
Learning Opportunities

Reproduction Cooking Equipment
Speakers & Consultants
Worthy Websites

Food History News 66

FHN66 Foot and End Notes, Suggested Reading Chile/Chili Sources and suggested readings Jean Andrews, Peppers. The Domesticated Capsicums. Austin. University of Texas Press, 1984. Alice Arndt, Seasoning Savvy. How to Cook with Herbs, Spices, and Other Flavorings. Binghamton, N.Y.: 1999. Sophie Coe, America's First Cuisines, Austin: University of Texas Press, 1994. Alan Davidson, ed. The Oxford Companion to Food . New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. Huntley Dent, The Feast of Santa Fe. New York: Fireside Press, 1985. Dave DeWitt, The Chile Pepper Encyclopedia. New York: Morrow, 1999. Pete Domenici, "The Correct Way to Spell Chile," Congressional Record-Senate 129 (November 3, 1983). Francisco Santamaría, Diccionario de Mejicanismos, Tercera edicion. Mexico City: Editorial Porrua, 1978. Andrew Smith, ed. The Oxford Encylopedia of Food and Drink in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004. Alice Stevens Tipton, The Original New Mexico Cookery, 1916; reprint ed., Santa Fe: N.M., 1965. Frank X. Tolbert, A Bowl of Red. Garden City, N. Y.: 1983.

Top of Page

Culinary History Organizations

Culinary Historians of Ann Arbor name/address: Pat Cornett, 31651 Auburn Drive, Beverly Hills, MI 48025;
   phone: 248-646-2895    fax: none
   email:    web site: none

Culinary Historians of Boston   name/address: Scott McKay, 16 Lake View, Arlington, MA 02476.
   phone: 617-5645-1170   fax: none
  email:   web

Culinary Historians of Chicago   name/address: Susan Ridgeway, 2113 Sanborn Circle, Plainfield, IL, 60544
   phone: 815-439-3960   fax: 815-254-9483
   email:   web site:

Culinary Historians of New York
   name/address: Stacey Harwood, Membership Chairman, PMB 133 2565 Broadway, New York, NY 10025
   phone: none    fax: none
   email: or   web site:

Culinary Historians of Northern California  
   name/address: Erica Peters, Independent Scholar   
   email:    web site:   Sign up by writing to:

Culinary Historians of Ontario
   name/address: 260 Adelaide St. East, Box 149, Toronto, Ontario, M5A 1N1, Canada
   phone: none   fax: none
   email:    web site:

Culinary Historians of Southern California
   name/address: Billie Connor-Dominguez, L.A. Public Library, 630 West 5th St., Los Angles, CA 90071; email Membership Chair, Susanna Erdos, 2054 Kenilworth Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90039
   phone: 323-663-5407   fax: none
   email:   web site:

Culinary Historians of Washington DC  CHOW meets at the Bethesda-Chevy Chase Services Center, 4805 Edgemoor Lane, Bethesda, MD.
   name/address: Kari Barrett, 5508 Waterway Terrace, Rockville, MD 20853.
   phone:    none   fax: none
   email:    web site:

Culinary History Enthusiasts of Wisconsin (CHEW)  
   name/address: 2018 Chamberlain Ave, Madison WI 53705
   phone: 608-255-0199    fax: none
   email:    web site:

Foodways Group of Austin  
   name/address: Mary Margaret Pack
   phone:    fax: none
   email:    web site:

Historic Foodways Guild of the Maryland
   name/address: Joyce White, 126 Locust Lane, Annapolis, MD 21403.
   phone: 410-267-8350   
   email:    web site:

Historic Foodways Society of the Delaware Valley
   name/address: Marybeth Raidy, Membership Secretary, 1015 Saw Mill Way, Lansdale, PA 19446.
   phone: 215-362-1260  
   email:    web site:

Houston Culinary Historians
   name/address: Cathleen Baird, Hospitality Industry Archives,U.of Houston, 4608 Woodhead St, Houston,TX, 77098
   phone: 713-743-2470 (work) or 713-524-7717 (home)   fax: 713-743-3696
   email:   web site:

Mediterranean Culinary Historians of Houston  
   name/address: George Zombakis, 5090 Richmond, 3173, Houston, TX 77056
   phone: 713.839.1373    fax: none
   email:    web site: none

New Orleans Culinary History Group  
   phone: none   fax: none
   email:    web site:

Research Centre for the History of Food and Drink  An Australian group, based at the Univ. of Adelaide
   name/address: Director A. Lynn Martin, Dept. of History, The Univ. of Adelaide, Adelaide, So. Australia 5005
   phone: 61-8-8303-5032   fax:  61-8-8303-3443
   email:   web site:

Other Interested Organizations

American Institute of Wine and Food (AIWF)   name/address: 304 West Liberty Street, Suite 201, Louisville, KY 40202
   phone: 800-274-2493   fax: 502-589-3602
   email:   web site:

Association for Living History, Farm, and Agricultural Museums(ALHFAM)
   name/address: Secretary, Judith Sheridan,   8774 Rt. 45 NW, North Bloomfield, OH, 44450
   phone:   none    fax: none
   email:   web site:

Foodways Section of the American Folklore SocietyAlso a digest: An Interdisciplinary Study of Food and Foodways.
   name/address: Department of Popular Culture, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green,OH, 43403
   phone: 419-372-7862   fax: 419-372-2577
   email:   web site:

Kollectors of Old Kitchen Stuff  
   name/address:KOOKS, 354 Rt. 206 N, Chester NJ 07930
   phone: 908-879-7935   fax: none
   email:    web site: none

Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery and Food History  
   phone: none   fax: none
   email:    web site:

Radcliffe Culinary Friends  Also a publication Radcliffe Culinary Times
   name/address: Friends of the Culinary Collection, Schlesinger Library, 10 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138
   phone: none   fax: none
   email: none   web site: none

Slow Food  international group dedicated to preserving traditional foods and eating habits
   name/address:434 Broadway - 7th Floor, New York ,NY 10013
   phone: 212 965 5640   fax: 212 226 0672
   email:    web site:

Southern Foodways Alliance   
   name/address: SFA, Southern Foodways Alliance, Center for the Study of Southern Culture, Barnard Observatory,    University, MS, 38677.
   phone: 662.915.5993    fax:
   email:    web site:

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Food Products for Food History

Adriana's Caravan   Spices and hard to find international ingredients .Catalog available.
   name/address: 78 Grand Central Terminal., New York, NY 10017
   phone: 800-316-0820 or 212-972-8804   fax: none
   email:   web site:

Angel Brand Co.  isinglass and gum arabic
   address: PO Box 191, Media, PA, 19063
   phone: 610.543.6060    fax: none
   email: none    web site: http:///

Anson Mills   artisan quality cold milled, organic grain products from heirloom seed corn, wheat and Carolina Gold rice.
   name/address: 1922-C Gervais St., Columbia, SC, 29201
   phone: (803) 467-4122   fax: (803) 256-2463
   email:    web site:

Deborah's Pantry   hard to find historical ingredients.
   name/address: Deborah Peterson, 327 Sumneytown Pike, Harleysville, PA, 19438-1249    phone:   
   email:   web site:

Forman & Field   fine food mail order company specialising in traditional British produce from small, independent    producers, an arm of H.Forman & Son, purveyors of Scottish smoked salmon.
   name/address: 30a Marshgate Lane, London, E15 2NH, Great Britain.    phone:020 8221 3939   fax:020 8221 3940    web site:

G.H. Bent's Pilot Cracker   Traditional pilot cracker.    name/address: Bent's Cookie Factory,7 Pleasant Street, Milton,
   MA 02186 
   phone: 617-698-5945 or 617-696-7730   fax: none
   email:   web site:

Gray's Grist Mill   Wheat, rye, and good quality, genuine flint corn meal. Custom grinding.
   name/address: PO Box 364, Adamsville, RI, 02801
   phone: 508-636-6075   fax: none
   email: none   web site:

Great Valley Mills   Flours and meals. Catalog available.  name/address: 1774 County Line Rd., Barto, PA 19504
   phone: 800-688-6455   fax: 610-754-6490
   email:   web site:

Hilo Macaroni Company   Early 20th century saloon pilot cracker.  name/address: 639 Kinoole St., Hilo, HI 96720
   phone: 808-935-1817   fax: 808-935-7648
   email: none   web site: none

Hopping John Taylor   Cornmeal, grits. John Taylor has information about his books and fine foods.
   name/address: PO Box 12775, Charleston, SC, 29412
   phone: 800-828-4412 or 843-763-5252   fax: none
  email:   web site:

Indian Harvest Specialty Food Inc.   Beans and grains barley, rice, posole.
   name/address: PO Box 428, Bemidji, MN, 56619-0428
   phone: 800-294-2433   fax: none
   email:   web site:

King Arthur Flour Co.   Various flours. Baker's Catalog. name/address: PO Box 876, Norwich, VT, 05055
   phone: 1-800-777-4434   fax: none
   email:    web site:

Maiden Mills   Alisa Crawford's Stone Ground Products
   name/address:,182 West Ninth St., Holland, MI 49423    phone: 616-393-6313   fax: none
   email:   web site: none.

Maine Goodies   Crown Pilot Crackers, other traditional New England food products
   name/address:,PO Box 288,Albion ME 04910    phone: 866-385-6238   fax: 207-437-2525
   email:   web site:

Mechanical Baking Co.   19th Century hardtack.   name/address: PO Box 513, Pekin, IL 61555-0513
   phone: 309-353-2414   fax: none   web site:

New England Cheesemaking Supply Co  Rennet, both calf and vegetable, various acids, plus a whole slew of starters, modern molds, presses, etc. Catalog available.
  name/address: PO Box 85, Ashfield, MA, 01330-0085
   phone: 413-628-3808   fax: 413-628-4061
   email:   web site:

Oyster Creek Mushroom Company Mushroom powder.
   name/address: 61 Standpipe Rd, Damariscotta, ME, 04543
   phone: 207-563-1076   fax: none
   email:   web site:

Penzeys, Ltd.   Spices and herbs.   name/address: 19300 W Janacek Ct, Brookfield, WI 53045
   phone: 800-741-7787   fax: 262-785-7678
   email: none   web site:

Speerville Flour Mill   Whole white flour.   name/address: 152 Speerville Rd., Speerville,, New Brunswick, E7N 1S2, Canada
   phone: 506-277-6371   fax: 506-277-1006
   email: none   web site: none

Westport Rivers Vineyard & WinerySupplier's of Verjuice.
   name/address: 417 Hixbridge Rd., Westport, MA 02790
   phone: 800-993-9695   fax: none
   email: none   web site:

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Historic Cooking Classes

Alice Ross Hearth Studios Inc.     name/address: 15 Prospect St., Smithtown, NY 11787
   phone: 631-265-9335   fax: none
   email:   web site:

Heart to Hearth Cookery  Susan McLellan Plaisted, Director Foodways Pennsbury Manor
   name/address:PO Box 1162, Morrisville,PA 19067
   phone: 215-219-9542   fax: none
   email:    web site:

Hermann-Grima/Gallier Historic Houses   Historic Creole Cookery
   name/address: 820 St. Louis St., New Orleans, LA, 70112
   phone: 504.525.5661 none   fax: 504.568.9735
   email:    web site:

Old Sturbridge Village   Early 19th century.   name/address: 1 OSV Rd., Sturbridge, MA 01566
   phone: 1-800-SEE-1830   fax: none
   email: none   web site:

The Open Hearth Cook   Colonial hearth cooking
   name/address: Mercy Ingraham, 2 Water St., Hulmville, PA, 19047.
   phone: 215.757.4397.    fax: same
   email:    web site:

Plimoth Plantation   17th Century style cookery.   name/address: PO Box 1620, Plymouth, MA 02362
   phone: 508-746-1622   fax: 508-746-4978
   email:   web site:< /font>
Spadina Museum      name/address: Spadina Museum, 285 Spadina Rd., Toronto, Ontario, M5R 2V5 Canada
   phone: 416-392-6910   fax: 416-392-0382
   email:   web site:

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Heirloom Seeds and Plants

For a more complete listing go to the web site:

Abundant Life Seed Foundation     name/address: POBox 772, Port Townsend, WA, 98368
   phone: 360-385-5660   fax: 360-385-7455
   email:   web site:

Baker Creek Heirloom Seed Co  
   name/address:2278 Baker Creek Rd, Mansfield MO 65704
   phone: 417-924-8917   fax: none
   email:    web site:

Eastern Native Seed Conservancy  
   name/address:P.O. Box 451,Great Barrington MA 01230
   phone: 413-229-8316   fax: none
   email:    web site:

J.L. Hudson, Seedsman  Catalog available.     name/address: Star Route 2, Box 337, La Honda, CA 94020
   phone: none   fax: none
   email:   web site:

Landis Valley Museum Heirloom Seed Project   name/address: 2451 Kissel Hill Rd., Lancaster, PA 17601-4899
   phone: 717-569-0401   fax: 717-560-2147
   email: none   web site: none

Monticello Garden Shop  Catalog/journal available.
   name/address: Twinleaf, PO Box 316, Charlottesville, VA 22902
   phone: 434-984-9821   fax: none
   email:   web site:

The Cook's Garden     name/address: POBox 535, Londonderry, VT 05148
   phone: 800-457-9703   fax: 800-457-9705
   email:   web site:

Victory Seed Company  
   name/address:PO Box 192, Molalla OR 97038
   phone: 503-829-3126   fax: none
   email:    web site:

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Learning Opportunities

Albuquerque TVI Community College       name/address: 525 Buena Vista, Albuquerque, NM 87106
   phone: 505-224-3080   fax: none
   email: none   web site:

Boston University    Gastronomy Program.
   name/address:, Master of Liberal Arts in Gastronomy, Boston Univ, 808 CommonwealthAve, Boston MA 02215
   phone: 617-353-9852   fax: 617-353-4130
   email:   web site:

Bowling Green State University  food and popular culture courses both undergraduate and post graduate; food can be a primary subject of study for a BA in popular culture/minor in folklore; for a MA in Popular culture; and for a PhD in American Studies.
   name/address:Dr.Lucy Long, Dept. of Popular Culture, Bowling Green OH 43403
   phone: 419-372-7862  
   email:    web site:

Center for the Study of Southern Culture       name/address: Univ. of Mississippi, University, MS 38677
   phone: 662-915-5993   fax: none
   email:   web site:

New School       name/address: 66 W. 12th St., New York, NY 10011
   phone: 212-229-5690   fax: none
   email:   web site:

New York Univ. Department of Nutrition and Food Studies
   name/address: 35 West 4th St., 10th Floor, New York, NY 10012-1172
   phone: 212-998-5588   fax: none
   email: none   web site:

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Please consider hunting down food history sources at any archive or library near you; perhaps you can locate manuscript cookbooks, old menus, account ledgers from a local grocery store, diaries from a "foodie" of the past, housekeeping magazines, provisions lists, or records for a local food producer. On the World Wide Web, visit Repositories of Primary Sources at to find internet sites for archives around the globe or SunSITE of the Berkeley Library at to locate home pages for libraries worldwide. If you are planning to visit any of the places listed below, please remember that academic libraries often reduce their hours during school vacations.


Culinary Institute of America  Conrad Hilton Library
   name/address:1946 Campus Drive, Hyde Park NY 12538-1499
   phone: 845-452-9600   fax: none
   email: none    web site:

Johnson & Wales University  Culinary Archives & Museum
   name/address:315 Harborside Boulevard, Providence RI 02905
   phone: 401-598-2805   fax: none
   email: none    web site:

New York Public Library  General Research Division
   name/address:5th Avenue and 42nd Street, New York 10018-2788
   phone: 212-930-0830   fax: none
   email:    web site:

University of Pennsylvania Aresty Collection of Rare Books on the Culinary Arts  
   name/address:Van Pelt-Dietrich Library, 3420 Walnut Street,Philadelphia, PA 19104-6206
   phone: 215-898-7088   fax: none
   email:    web site:


Indiana University  Lilly Library Collections
   name/address:1200 E. Seventh St,Indiana Univ., Bloomington IN 47405-5500
   phone: 812-855-2452   fax: 812-855-3143
   email:    web site:

Kansas State University Library.    Cookery Collection in the Richard & Marjorie Morse Department of Special    Collections. Be sure to check manuscript collections, too.
   name/address: 506 Hale Library, Manhattan, KS, 66506-1200.
   phone: 785-532-7455.    fax:
   web site:

Longone Center for American Culinary Research  
   name/address:William L. Clements Library, Univeristy of Michigan, 909 University Ave, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1190
   phone: 734-764-2347   fax: 734-647-0716
   email:    web site:

University of Iowa Library  Szathmary Culinary Archives
   name/address:Department of Special Collections Iowa City IA 52242-1420
   phone: 319-335-5921   fax: none
   email:    web site:


Vorhoff Library  
   name/address:Newcomb College Center for Research on Women Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118
   Books can be accessed via Voyager catalog
   phone: 504-865-5762   fax: 504-862-8948
   email: Susan Tucker Curator of Books and Records, Newcomb Center for Research on Women:
   web site:


City College of San Francisco   Alice Statler Library  
   name/address: Room 10, Statler Wing, 50 Phelan Ave., San Francisco CA 94112
   phone: 415-239-3460   fax: 415-239-3026
   email:   web site:

COPIA The American Center for Wine, Food & the Arts       name/address: 500 First St., Napa, CA 94559
   phone: 888-512-6742   fax: 707-257-8601
   email:   web site:

Los Angeles Public Library   Rare Books Department     name/address:630 W. Fifth Street,Los Angeles,CA 90071
   phone: 213-228-7350   fax: 213-228-7239
   email:   web site:

Napa Valley Wine Library       name/address: PO Box 328, St. Helena, CA 94574
   phone: 707-963-5244 or 707-963-5145   fax: none
   email:   web site:

Sonoma County Wine Library     Healdsburg Regional Library
   name/address: Piper and Center Streets, Healdsburg CA 95448
   phone: 707-433-3773   fax: 707-433-7946
   email: none   web site:

Texas Women's University Library  Cookbook Collection
   name/address:P.O. Box 425528, 1200 Frame, Denton, TX, 76201
   phone: 940-898-3701   fax: 940-898-3764
   email:    web site:

University of California at Davis  The Shields Library Special Collections
   address: UCDavis, 100 North West Quad, Davis, CA 95616-5292
   phone: 530 752-1621   fax: none
   email: none   web site:

University of California at San Diego   American Institute of Wine and Food's Culinary Collection andMandeville Special Collections Library
   name/address: UCSD Libraries, 0175S, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0175
   phone:858-534-2533    fax: 858-534-5950
   email:   web site:

University of Houston  Hospitality Industry Archives
   name/address:229 C. N. Hilton Hotel and College, Houston TX 77204-3028
   phone: 713-743-2470   fax: 713-743-3028
   email:    web site:

University of Washington       Manuscripts,Special Collections,University Archives, Pacific Northwest Collection
   name/address:   Allen Library, Box 352900, Seattle, WA 98195-2900
   phone: 206-543-19292   fax: 206-543-1931
   email:   web site:

Libraries Abroad

University of Adelaide Library (Australia)  
   phone: 61 8 8303 5370   fax: none
   email:    web site:

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Eastfield Pottery   Reproductions of English China creamware, mochaware, pearlware, and polychrome from 1760 to 1840     name/address: Don Carpentier, Box 143 RD, East Nassau, NY 12062
   phone: 518-766-2422   fax: none
   email: none   web site: none

Henderson's Redware   Reproductions of pottery from the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries available.
   name/address: 2115 Union St., Bangor, ME, 04401
   phone: 866-376-4475   fax: 207-942-9044
   email: none   web site:

Julia Smith, Potter   Excellent 17th &18th century delft, redware
   name/address: PO Box 27599, Providence, RI 02907
   phone: none   fax: none
   email:   web site:

New Salem Pottery   historical reproductions
   name/address:789 New Salem Rd., Randleman, NC, 27317-7828
   phone: 336.498.2178 none   fax: none
   email:    web site:

Pied Potter Hamlin   redware pottery
   name/address:751 Main Street, P.O. Box 1082, Warren, MA 01083-1082.
   phone: 3413-436-7444 voice & fax none  
   email:    web site:

Westmoore Pottery  17th, 18th, and 19th century pottery; replicas redware & stoneware
   name/address: 4622 Busbee Rd., Seagrove, NC 27341
   phone: 910-464-3700   fax: none
   email:   web site:


Carl Giordano Tinsmith  18th & 19th century reproduction tinware
   name/address:PO Box 74, Wadsworth, OH 44282
   phone: none   fax: none
   email:    web site:

Goose Bay Workshops   Excellent copper & brass, 17th & 18th century.
   name/address: 10137 Seashore Hwy, Bridgeville, DE 19933
   phone: 302-337-0229   fax: 302-337-0302
   email: none   web site:

Orpheus, Master Coppersmith   Makes copper tea kettles in many sizes, cooking utensils, fry pans, and stew pans—all tin-lined. Also repairs, re-tins, and refinishes antique copper. Custom copperware upon request.
   name/address: Kurt Strehl, 52 Clematis Rd., Agawam, MA, 01001
   phone: 413-786-0143   fax: none
   email: none   web site: none

Silvex Surface Technology    Metalware replating.
   name/address: 45 Thomas Dr., Westbrook, ME,04092
   phone: 207-761-0392   fax: none
   email: none   web site: www.silvexinc.coml


Dog River Glassworks  19th Century bottles and interior furnishings
   phone: none   fax: none
   email:    web site:

House on the Hill  Replicas of historic cookie molds
   name/address:650 W. Grand Ave., Unit 100, Elmhurst IL 60126
   phone: 630-279-4455   fax: none
   email:    web site:

Maki's Boxes & Mercantile  reproduction food can labels and boxes and containers
   name/address:1521 Franklin Ave., Lexington, MO, 64067
   phone: 660-259-2200   fax: none
   email:    web site: none

Mulberry Impressions   maker of Medieval-style waxed leather bottles
   name/address: Greg Klassen, Mulberry Impressions, 49 Parkindale Rd Pollett River, NB, E4Z 3A7, Canada  
   email:    web site: in the works

P & B Glassworks   17th & 18th Century glassware.
   name/address: 5612 Mooretown Rd., Unit C, Williamsburg, VA 23188
   phone: 757-564-8436   fax: none
   email: none   web site: none

Beaver Buckets  wooden buckets, basins, washtubs, barrels, yokes, and butter churns
   name/address:Rt. 1 Box 159, Indianola, NE 69034
   phone: 308-364-2528   fax: none
   email:    web site:

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Speakers & Consultants

Please note: Inclusion on this list does not imply endorsement of the individual by Food History News or Sandy Oliver.

Carlin, Joe   18th Century Tavern life and Federal Era foodways; clams.
   name/address: 15 Kimball Ave., Ispwich, MA, 01938-1206
   phone: 617-565-1170    fax: 978-356-8306
   email:    web site:

Dansak, Michele   Open-Hearth Cookery Lessons & Demonstrations.
   name/address: 206 Saxson St., Hillsborough, NJ 08844-3461

Dillon, Clarissa    18th Century hearth cookery and gardening, eastern Pennsylvania; food preservation.
   name/address: 768 Buck Lane, Haverford, PA 19041
   phone: 610-642-4269   fax: none
   email: none   web site: none

Easton, Ellen    tea and tea drinking history; tea menu and presentation consultant to hospitality industry.
   phone:(212) 722-7981   
   best contact by email: with FHN in the subject line.   

Gunderson, Mary  Expert on Lewis and Clark Expedition foodways, early 19th century cooking across North America, prairie foods, pioneer farm cooking; author of several food histories for children and of The Food Journal of Lewis & Clark.
   name/address:PO Box 709, Yankton SD 57078
   phone: 877 581 8422    fax: 605 668 9586
   email:    web site:

Krall-Russo, Judith   New Jersey's food history, including cranberries, blueberries and tomatoes; tea and tea-drinking customs.
   address: 3 Meyer Rd., Edison, NJ, 08817
   phone: 732-985-2486   fax: 732-984-513
   email:    web site:

Oliver, Sandra   19th Century New England food history, seafood, and food at sea. 18th Century domestic arts, including cooking, preservation.
   name/address: 1061 Main Rd., Islesboro, ME 04848
   phone: none   fax: none
   email:   web site:

Past Masters in Early American Domestic Arts  Educational group interpreting domestic skills and processes prevalent during the American Revolution
   name/address:768 Buck Lane, Haverford PA 19041
   phone: 610-642-4269   fax: none
   email:    web site:

Plaisted, Susan McLellan  Speaker on: bake oven, Native American foodways, 18th century food history
   name/address:PO Box 1162, Morrisville PA 19067
   phone: 215-219-9542   fax: none
   email:    web site:

Rees, John U.   Revolutionary War British and American soldier foodways and life. The World of the Common Soldier
   name/address: 136 N. Sugan Rd., New Hope, PA 18938
   phone: none   fax: none
   email:   web site: (sample articles)

Rose, Peter G.   Expert on Dutch cookery and on Dutch in Hudson Valley
   name/address: New York. RR3 Indian Lane, South Salem, NY 10590
   phone: 914-763-8898   fax: none
   email:   web site:

Smith, Andrew   Expert on history of tomato, popcorn, peanuts, and ketchup; American culinary history; teaches at the New School
   name/address: 135 Eastern Pkwy 11A, Brooklyn, NY, 11238
   phone: 718-783-0915   fax: 212-624-1412
   email:   web site:

Sorensen, Leni Ashmore     expert on 18th and 19th century African-American foodways.
   name/address: 4692 Browns Gap Tnpk, Crozet, VA 22932-1608
   phone: 434-823-7079   fax: none

Wheaton, Barbara  French culinary history; culinary history methodology.
   name/address:268 Elm St., Concord, MA, 01742
   phone: 978-369-7007   fax: none
   email:    web site: none

Williams, Jackie  Food on the Oregon Trail and in the Pacific Northwest
   name/address:1235 22nd Ave. East, Seattle, WA, 98112
   phone: 206-322-4197   fax: none
   email:    web site: none

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Worthy Websites

Email discussion list for cookbook collectors and forum for the exchange of ideas and information about cookbooks and related subjects
&email:    web site:

Cookery Exhibit  
Kansas State Univeristy's on-line display of early cookery material, with recipes.
web site: and also for manuscript materials
Eleventh Edidtion (1911)Encyclopedia Brittanica  
The whole thing on-line.
web address:

Feeding America: The Historic American Cookbook Project  
Full text reproductions of 76 historic American cookbooks, searchable.
web site:

The FOOD Museum Online  
Co-directors: Meredith and Tom Hughes
mail address: 9908 La Paz, NW Albuquerque, NM 87114   phone: 505 898 0909
web site:

Food Timeline  
A deep site with many links, and an opportunity to ask questions.
web address:

Historic Food  
Ivan Day's richly illustrated site, with recipes, class lists, and more .
web address:
History of Eating Utensils  
On-line exhibit of items from the Rietz Food Technology Collection in Department of Anthropology at the California Academy of Sciences. Address: 875 Howard St., San Francisco, CA, 94103. Phone: (415) 321-8369.
web address:
In the Victorian Kitchen  
On-line exhibit of items from the Rietz Food Technology Collection in Department of Anthropology at the California Academy of Sciences. Address: 875 Howard St., San Francisco, CA, 94103. Phone: (415) 321-8369.
web address:
Longone Center for American Culinary Research  
Janice Bluestein Longone's collection at the University of Michigan is well supported by an interesting website.
web address:
New York Public Library Digital Gallery  
Digitized a menu collection, spanning the 1850s to the 1930s; with most between 1890 and 1910."> web address here.

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